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Referencing examples

Understanding Source Types, In-Text Citations, and Bibliographic References

This page contains a list of different source types you might need to reference during your degree, an example of how you would write your in-text citation, and an example of how to write out a full reference for you bibliography. Remember, the below are examples – the key to successful referencing is to include enough information so the person reading your work can find the original source.

Video explanations of the below can be found here, for basic referencing (this link opens in a new window), and here, for more complex or unusual items (this link opens in a new window).

Information on where to find the information you need to create a reference is available on the library VLE page (this link opens in a new window).

If you need more help, or if the source you are looking for is not listed below, just ask us:

Books and pamphlets

SourceIn-text citationBibliography
(1 author)
(Spiekermann, 2003, p. 44) Spiekermann, E. (2003) Stop stealing sheep and find out how type works. 2nd Edition. Berkeley: Adobe Press.
(2 or 3 authors)
(Rifkin, Ackerman, and Folkenberg, 2006, p. 76) Rifkin, B., Ackerman, M. and Folkenberg, J. (2006) Human anatomy: depicting the body from Renaissance to today. London: Thames and Hudson.
(4 or more authors)
(Ainsworth et al., 2010, p. 63) Ainsworth, M. et al. (2010) Man, myth and sensual pleasure: Jan Gossaert’s Renaissance. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Book with an editor(Buckley, 2010, pp. 89-90) Buckley, P. (ed.) (2010) Penguin 75. New York: Penguin.
Chapter in an edited book(Telfer, 2006, p. 15) Telfer, E. (2006) ‘Food as art’, in Neill, A. (ed.) Arguing about art. 3rd Edition. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 11-29.
Ebook(New, 2005, p. 46) New, J. (2005) Drawing from life: the journal as art. Available at: (Accessed: 19 October 2017).
Exhibition catalogue/pamphlet(Wallis, 1997) Wallis, S. (1997) Within these walls. Exhibition held at Kettle’s Yard, Cambridge, 2 August to 21 September 1997 [Exhibition catalogue].

Journals, magazines, newspapers

Printed journal/
magazine article
(Smith, 2008, p. 63) Smith, B. (2008) ‘Feeling good: eco fashion is looking fine’, Selvedge, 21, pp. 62-65.
Online journal/ magazine article (Steyn, 2007, p. 192) Steyn, J. (2007) ‘The cultural politics of friendship’, Third Text, 21(2), pp. 189-198. Available at:
09528820701273489 (Accessed: 27 March 2008).
Online newspaper articles (Brooker, 2009) Brooker, C. (2009) ‘Charlie Brooker: why I love video games’, The Guardian. Available at: (Accessed: 05 June 2023).
Magazine advertisement (Vogue, 2017) Vogue (2017) ‘Alexander McQueen’ [Advertisement]. June, p. 62.

Internet, social media and apps

Website / pdf / online photograph (Kentridge, 2007) Kentridge, W. (2007) Fragile identities. Available at: (Accessed: 17 December 2022).
PDFsSee websites (above) See websites (above)
Maps (Digimap online) (Smith, 2023) Smith, John, “Norwich” [PDF map], Scale 1:500, GB Overview [geospatial data], Updated: Jun 2017, Ordnance Survey (GB), Using: EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service, <>, Created: June 2023.
YouTube (FF Channel, 2017) FF Channel (2017) Gucci: cruise 2018. Available at: (Accessed: 05 June 2023).
Podcast (Valenti, 2017) Valenti, J. (2017) Making art in the time of Trump: what would a feminist do? [Podcast]. 22 March. Available at: (Accessed: 21 June 2023).
Facebook (The National Gallery, 2017) The National Gallery (2017) Otto Franz Scholderer [Facebook] 14 June. Available at: (Accessed: 21 June 2023).
Twitter (Norfolk Museums, 2017) Norfolk Museums (2017) [Twitter] 21 June. Available at: (Accessed: 21 June 2023).
Instagram image (Norwich Castle Art, 2017) Norwich Castle Art (2017) Development image by Carl Rowe. Available at: (Accessed: 21 June 2023).
Blog (Lau, 2017) Lau, S. (2017) We choose to go to the moon’, Style Bubble, 26 May. Available at: (Accessed: 05 June 2023).
App (FitBit, 2017) FitBit (2017) Fitbit [Mobile app]. Available at: Google Play Store. [Accessed: 21 June 2023).

Film, TV, games and music

Film (DVD) (Deadpool, 2016) Deadpool (2016) Directed by Tim Miller [DVD]. Los Angeles, Calif.: 20th Century Fox.
Film (Online)
e.g. Netflix
(Pinocchio, 2022) Pinocchio (2022) Directed by G. del Toro [Film]. Available at: (Accessed: 01 May 2023).
Directors’ commentary (Mendes, 1999) Mendes, S. (1999) ‘Director’s commentary’, American Beauty. Directed by S. Mendes [DVD]. Los Angeles, Calif.: Dreamworks.
TV programme (The shock of the new, 2012) The shock of the new (2012) BBC Four Television, 17 September.
TV programme
viewed online (e.g. via BoB)
(‘Living in the city’, 2016) Living in the city’ (2016) Grand Designs, Series 11, episode 9, Channel 4 Television, 23 August. Available at: (Accessed: 05 June 2023).
TV advertisement (Samsung, 2017) Samsung (2017) Ostrich [Advertisement on ITV1 Television].
31 March.
Video Game (Giant Squid Studios, 2017) Giant Squid Studios (2017) Abzu [Video game]. 505 Games.
Song lyrics (Winehouse, 2007) Winehouse, A. (2007) Rehab. London: Universal Island Records.
Play text (script)(Russell, 1981)Russell, W. (1981) Educating Rita. Edited by Lewis, S. London: Methuen Publishing.

Visual sources

If you have included the image in the body of your essay you will need to caption the image (this link opens in a new window). Captioned images do not need to be included in your bibliography. If you are only referring to the image without including it in your essay, reference it as below.

Exhibition(Tracey Emin and William Blake in focus, 2017) Tracey Emin and William Blake in focus (2017) [Exhibition]. Tate Liverpool. 16 September 2016 – 3 September 2017.
Sculpture(Hepworth, 1956) Hepworth, B. (1956) Forms in movement [Sculpture]. Aratoi, Wairarapa Museum of Art and History.
Painting/drawing(Tyson, 1995) Tyson, N. (1995) Swimmer [Oil on canvas]. Tate, London.
Graffiti(Pedro Lujan and his dog, 2012) Pedro Lujan and his dog (2012) [Graffiti] Factory building, Pedro de Luján, Barracas, Buenos Aires. (Viewed: 29 November 2023)
(from a book, print or slide)
(Fullerton-Batten, 2008) Fullerton-Batten, J. (2008) Hallway [Photograph]. London: Thames and Hudson.
(Lange, 1936) Lange, D. (1936) Migrant mother. Available at: (Accessed: 21 June 2023).
Flickr(Pogue, 2015) Pogue, S. (2015) _DSC9159. Available at: (Accessed: 05 June 2023).
Packaging(Nestlé, 2019) Nestlé (2019) Rowntree’s fruit pastilles [Wrapper].
Logo(Starbucks, 2017) Starbucks (2017) Starbucks [Logo]. Available at: (Accessed: 21 June 2023).

Public and personal communication

Lecture(Westwood, 2020) Westwood, V. (2020) Music and fashion [Lecture to BA Fashion Year 2], BA2a: Experimentation and application. Norwich University of the Arts. 10 November.
Webinar(Asante, 2020)Asante, A. (2020) Masterclass: Amma Asante [Webinar]. Available at: (Accessed: 02 July 2023).
Conversation(Perry, 2021) Perry, G. (2021) Conversation with John Smith, 10 April.

(NB – in the example above, you are John Smith, and Grayson Perry is the person you had a conversation with). If the conversation was via Teams or Zoom, simply say “Teams conversation with…”
Email(Thunberg, 2022) Thunberg, G. (2022) Email to Lauren Rowley, 23 January.

(NB – in the example above, you are L. Rowley, and Greta Thunberg is the person who emailed you).

Information on secondary referencing, which is when an author uses a quote from somebody else’s work in their work and you use their in your essay, is available on the VLE (this link opens in a new window).